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Global Summit on Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, will be organized around the theme “Emphasizing Challenges in Cardio Research”

CARDIAC SURGERY-2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in CARDIAC SURGERY-2023

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The science of cardiac electrophysiology focuses on understanding, identifying, and treating the electrical processes of the heart. Invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of both spontaneous activity and cardiac responses to pre-programmed electrical stimulation is employed to study these phenomena, and the word is used to describe these studies (PES). These investigations are carried out to analyse complex arrhythmias, clarify symptoms, examine aberrant electrocardiograms, determine the likelihood of future arrhythmia development, and formulate a treatment plan. Along with diagnostic and prognostic procedures, these procedures mostly involve therapeutic techniques (usually radiofrequency ablation, or cry ablation). Pacemakers, automated implanted cardioverter-defibrillators, and antiarrhythmic medication therapy are some of the additional therapeutic techniques used in this sector (AICD).



 


The condition affecting the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels, is examined and treated by a clinical cardiologist. In order to treat and prevent heart attacks, coronary artery disorders, and other conditions of a similar nature, Cardiac Surgery 2023 utilise drugs and other non-surgical techniques. Cardiac Surgery 2023 will include topics like Cardiovascular Medicine, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Cardiac Progenitor Cell Applications, and many more at the worldwide cardiology congress. Clinical Cardiology is being studied in many universities.

 


In Western nations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main killer, accounting for over 30% of global fatalities. Healthy eating habits and lifestyle choices are useful at preventing CVD, according to the evidence. Furthermore, the prevention of CVD (or cardiovascular events) by dietary and lifestyle changes has become a top concern for public health due to the increased incidence of CVD over the past 25 years. Current scientific research demonstrates that as compared to healthy eating habits, like the "Mediterranean diet" (Me Diet), Western dietary patterns cause an excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and a decrease in the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In actuality, dietary intervention enables better blending of various meals and nutrients. As a result, the potential benefits of a healthy dietary pattern are greater than those of a single nutritional supplement. This review assesses the size of the favourable benefits seen in order to identify potential targets (food patterns, individual foods, or individual nutrients) for reducing CVD. As an alternative, we examine the potential pathways responsible for this cardio protective impact. 



All ages and ethnicities of women are impacted by heart disease. It is the main reason for death in women around the world. But a lot of women are unaware that they are vulnerable. They are unaware of their risk factors and the fact that early warning symptoms can vary between men and women. Women and those who were classified as female at birth (DFAB) have the power to start lowering their risks once they are aware of them.



People who were identified as female at birth (DFAB) and women are particularly affected by cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in men and women appears to be influenced by differences in the sexes' anatomy, red blood cell counts, and hormones. Worldwide and in the United States, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death. Every third death worldwide in 2019 was due to cardiovascular disease. In that one year, about 18 million people worldwide passed away from CVD. Heart disease accounts for around 659,000 fatalities per year in the United States, or 1 in 4.



 



The study of cardiovascular disease that develops as a result of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the focus of the emerging specialty of cardiology known as cardio-oncology. Cardiovascular disease is also monitored and treated in this setting. A significant source of morbidity and mortality in the oncologic population, cardiac dysfunction can be brought on by either cancer therapy method. It is important to routinely check on cancer patients receiving treatment, especially those getting anthracyclines and trastuzumab (a monoclonal antibody). The main method used for this is 3D echocardiography, which can be used to calculate the left ventricular ejection fraction and gauge myocardial deformation. It may also be possible to detect potential cardio toxicity early and respond appropriately by evaluating different biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides.



In this context, a craniological evaluation prior to beginning cancer treatment is crucial, and it should be continued throughout, as cardiac dysfunction can happen at any time, even years after the commencement of therapy. Particularly for high-risk patients, a thorough management strategy created in conjunction with a cardiologist and oncologist should be given. Even in the absence of overt clinical symptoms, normal heart care should be administered if heart failure develops. If at all possible, the harmful agent should also be stopped. One crucial consideration is when to discontinue taking cardiac medications after finishing cancer therapy in the event that heart malfunction returns. Heart failure's harmful mechanisms and effects can be better understood with the help of evolving cardio-oncology, which can also help with the creation of individualised treatment plans.



 



Non-invasive methods are used in nuclear cardiology research to evaluate the heart's pumping capacity, measure myocardial blood flow, and see how big and where a heart attack is happening. Myocardial perfusion imaging is the most frequently employed method in nuclear cardiology.



By evaluating the LVEF, nuclear cardiology with radioactive ventriculography is frequently used to assess ventricular function. However, these procedures have very slow preparation and scanning durations, and they have low spatial and temporal resolution. 22 Additionally, it is challenging to quantify ventricular volumes, which are rarely done in clinical settings (though they are occasionally used for research), 3, 23 and ventricular mass cannot be determined. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with gated perfusion has made it possible to construct 3D solutions for both global and regional ventricular function, and this technology is rapidly gaining popularity, notably in the United States. This is helpful when perfusion needs to be evaluated and it gives the perfusion evaluation prognostic value, but it is not done only to evaluate ventricular function.



Although ventricular volumes are reported to be reliable27 and this technique has good reproducibility, there are questions about its accuracy in small and large ventricles due to its poor spatial resolution and difficulties identifying a ventricular border in regions of Trans mural infarction and thinning where counts are very low. 28 contrast echocardiography is more precise than gated SPECT for estimating left ventricular remodelling, according to a report on Tc-99m sestamibi ECG-gated SPECT conducted 3 weeks after an acute myocardial infarction. 30 The evaluation of heart function using ECG-gated F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) has recently been proven to be reasonably accurate31; however, this technology is time-consuming and is only used in viability studies. The requirement for repeated radionuclide doses in follow-up studies for various nuclear cardiology techniques is difficult, especially for research, where radiation exposure must be justified in a context of competing technologies and broad public demand to decrease radiation loads.



 



A National Health Organization's paediatric cardiology programme focuses on diagnosing and treating heart illnesses in new-borns and young children. Dietetics, socialist staff nurses, doctors, and therapists are all available at the Narayan Health Care Centre for comprehensive care. The diagnosis and treatment of cardiac conditions in infants, children, and babies is the area of expertise of paediatric cardiologists in India. Numerous heart conditions can impact children. There are certain structural problems in some new-borns. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of these heart abnormalities is a specialty of paediatric cardiologists.



Although not extremely frequent, heart conditions and issues among children under the age of 18 are rising alarmingly in the nation today. These may result from a number of reasons, including but not limited to the ones listed below:




  • Genetics


  • unhealthy way of life


  • Smoking and drinking during pregnancy by the mother, etc.


  • first trimester of pregnancy viral infection



Children's cardiac conditions can range from simple conditions that can be treated with short-term medication to ones that might need surgical intervention. Paediatric cardiologists have received specialised training in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiac conditions in kids. To deliver complete care, they collaborate closely with paediatricians who specialise in primary care.



Children's heart issues are extremely uncommon and distinct from those that affect adults. Children are typically found to have congenital heart abnormalities. The most frequently identified birth defect is congenital cardiac problems. The problems affect the heart's valves, arteries, and veins, among other structural components.



 



Cardiac nursing is a nursing speciality that deals with patients who have different cardiovascular diseases. Under the supervision of a cardiologist, cardiac nurses provide care for patients suffering from cardiac dysrhythmia, unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and other disorders.



Cardiac nurses provide postoperative care in a surgical unit, stress test analyses, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health evaluations. Cardiac nurses are required to be certified in both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. Additionally, cardiac nurses need to be skilled in administering medication via continuous intravenous drip, defibrillation, and ECG monitoring. [1] Cardiac nurses operate in a variety of settings, including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, intensive care units (ICU), operating rooms, cardiac rehabilitation centres, clinical research, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.



 



Cardiovascular surgery, often known as cardiac surgery, refers to operations on the heart or large blood vessels. It is frequently used to treat congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease from many sources, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis, as well as consequences of ischemic heart disease (for instance, after coronary artery bypass grafting). Additionally, heart transplants are part of it.



When other treatments have failed or are not an option, cardiac surgery can treat some heart conditions. Heart surgery could occasionally constitute a medical emergency. For instance, a serious heart attack may require immediate surgery. In some circumstances, you can schedule heart surgery in advance. Heart bypass surgery, which opens blocked cardiac arteries, is one type of significant heart procedure. Other surgeries, including implanting a pacemaker, are less major heart operations.



 



In large part due to an increase in age, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, heart failure and accompanying morbidity and mortality are rising alarmingly quickly. Patients with diabetes mellitus experience much worse clinical outcomes from heart failure than patients without the condition. The phrase "diabetic cardiomyopathy" refers to the existence of cardiac dysfunction in persons with diabetes mellitus in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Alongside the rise in diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is also rising. Myocardial fibrosis, dysfunctional remodelling, and concomitant diastolic dysfunction are the early symptoms of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Systolic dysfunction and clinical heart failure are later symptoms.



Impaired mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte calcium handling, inflammation, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, micro vascular dysfunction, and a myriad of other factors contribute to impaired cardiac insulin metabolic signalling, mitochondrial dysfunction, increases in oxidative stress, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, elevations in advanced glaciation end products, and stiffness of collagen-based Anomalies in AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, O-linked N-acetyl glucosamine, protein kinase C, microRNA, and exospore pathways are among the molecular mechanisms connected to the underlying pathophysiological alterations. This review's objective is to present a current understanding of these causes of diabetic cardiomyopathy as well as mechanistically based techniques for its prevention and therapy.



 



Gynaecological emergencies are illnesses that affect the female reproductive system and endanger a woman's life, sexual function, and ability to have children. Common gynaecological emergencies frequently stem from pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), problems with contraception, and sudden abdominal pain, irregular vaginal bleeding, or a mix of both.



Acute gynaecological issues include pelvic discomfort, severe menorrhagia; vulvar problems, acute PID, hyperemesis gravid arum, and post-gynaecology surgery problems can be quickly treated in some hospitals, primarily in the developed world. Specialist nurses, sinologists, and an on-call gynaecology medical team led by a consultant gynaecologist are frequently on duty in these units. The goal of such a unit is to provide prompt, adequate healthcare, so minimising potential complications and, in turn, minimising the morbidity and mortality related to such situations. New antibiotics, limited access surgery, biochemical pregnancy testing, and advances in sonography have all made it possible to diagnose these problems earlier and use more conservative treatment modalities.



This chapter's main goal is to provide an overview of each of these emergency gynaecological disorders, as well as information on how to treat them. The care of these cases frequently entails taking a case history, doing a clinical examination, conducting both general and targeted investigations, and putting in place the necessary treatment strategy. Due to the urgency of the situation, the management phases sometimes overlap, with some requiring urgent resuscitation.



 



Endocrine emergencies are a group of uncommon and severe symptoms of typical endocrine problems that are frequently brought on by an aggravating circumstance, like a recent infection. The underlying endocrine problem may first manifest as an endocrine emergency. With increasing severity of the endocrine dysfunction, the neurologic and systemic side effects of endocrine disorders typically get worse. However, the rate of change is crucial since severe but longstanding endocrine failure may have very mild symptoms, but quick changes may cause considerable neurologic impairment. Clinical neurologists should be aware of the neurologic symptoms of endocrine problems since many of these endocrine emergencies can be successfully handled with an early and precise diagnosis.



Insufficient or excessive hormone production leads to endocrine diseases. Due to hormones' widespread effects on several organs and systems, including the neurological system, the clinical course is protracted and the signs are nonspecific. This is a narrative summary of recent research on the methods used to diagnose and treat severe medical and neurological emergencies.



 



Interventional cardiology focuses on more intrusive therapies, frequently utilising catheters and stenting, as opposed to preventive or non-invasive methods of treatment like lifestyle modifications and the majority of imaging modalities. Researchers at Johns Hopkins are working to improve the effectiveness and safety of these medicines.



In the past, high-risk individuals with aortic stenosis, or a narrowing of the aortic heart valve, had little choice but to undergo open-heart surgery. For the majority of patients who require aortic valve replacement, the less invasive Trans catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), in which a new valve is implanted inside the unhealthy one, has gained popularity as the safest option. Clinical trials are currently being carried out by Johns Hopkins researchers to see if low-risk patients will also benefit from this surgery. The Johns Hopkins TAVR doctors' thorough training contributes to the best possible procedural results. Researchers are now better able to analyse outcomes and support TAVR studies in the future thanks to the construction of a database that includes all patients who have received TAVR at Johns Hopkins. On-going clinical research in patients undergoing TAVR includes frailty assessment, neurologic outcomes, racial differences in therapy application and predictors of need for permanent pacemaker implantation.



 



Heart disease is any condition that affects your heart, such as coronary artery disease and arrhythmia. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease is responsible for 1 in 4 four deaths in the United States each year. It’s a leading cause of death in both men and women. To diagnose heart disease, your doctor will perform a series of tests and evaluations. They may also use some of these tests to screen you for heart disease before you develop noticeable symptoms.



Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect the heart. Heart diseases include:




  • Blood vessel disease, such as coronary artery disease


  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)


  • Heart problems you're born with (congenital heart defects)


  • Disease of the heart muscle


  • Heart valve disease



Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.



 



The Case Reports publishes high quality, valuable, educational case reports, images, and quality improvement projects in all aspects of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine. The cases will be of interest to senior medical students and doctors during the early stages of their medical careers.



The primary aim is to promote learning among junior cardiologists as regards both the published content as well as the review-and-editorial process. The journal operates a mentorship plan to develop junior reviewers and editors under the close guidance of experienced senior reviewers and editors.



 



Cardiac rehabilitation is important program for everybody getting better from a coronary heart attack, coronary heart failure, or different coronary heart hassle that required surgical operation or clinical care. Cardiac rehabilitation entails adopting coronary heart-healthful way of life adjustments to cope with hazard elements for cardiovascular disease. To assist undertake way of life adjustments, this program consists of workout training, training on coronary heart-healthful living, and counseling to lessen pressure and assist you come to an energetic life.



Cardiac rehabilitation can enhance fitness and first-class of life; lessen the want for drug treatments to deal with coronary heart or chest pain. The cardiac rehabilitation team consists of doctors, nurses, workout specialists, bodily and occupational therapists, dietitians or nutritionists, and intellectual fitness specialists. Possible test includes an electrocardiogram, cardiac imaging test, and a treadmill or tationary bike exercise test. Very rarely, bodily interest for the duration of rehabilitation can reason critical problems, which include accidents in muscle mass and bones, or probable life-threatening coronary heart rhythm problems